Garlic is planted the year before so it comes up in the spring, ready to grow. After planting, which is traditionally done on or around Columbus Day, we cover the bed with straw or some other light mulch.
Garlic can also be planted in the spring although the harvested bulbs will tend not to be as large as those planted in the fall.
Young garlic plants
There's a high success rate. We don't recall a clove not developing into a new garlic plant.
We do have rich, well drained soil which one of the resources here says is a requirement for garlic.We have never had any pests bother the garlic and, in fact, one year planted single rows of garlic in each garden bed to ward pests away from the rest of the vegetables—along the lines of using garlic to keep vampires away. We don't have any evidence that it worked (for the pests) and find it more efficient to plant the garlic in one large bed. It is also easier to plan the rest of the garden if the garlic is in one place.
For many years we cut off and discarded these curly-ques at the top of each garlic stalk. Cutting them off was the proper thing to do since it wouldn't be good for the garlic plant to go to seed, but throwing away the "scapes"? What a waste! Before someone told us about it, we didn't know you could eat them. Then it took a few years to figure out what to do with them besides just sautéing them. Then we found a recipe—Garlic Scape Bean Spread—which we love. We make as much as we can and freeze it for the winter.
A bed of garlic
Here are the garlic plants, making food for the bulbs developing in the soil.
When they turn yellow-brown in the summer, it's time to harvest. The rule of thumb we use is to harvest nine months after the garlic was planted. That would be around July 10th. Any garlic planted in the spring would be harvested at about the same time or perhaps a few weeks later.
Just a small part of the harvest, drying for winter storage
Garlic is very productive and we used to grow enough to keep us going through the year. We now use a lot more garlic in cooking and haven't quite gotten production up to where it meets our needs.
We save the best cloves for replanting for next year's crop, though.